Anime’s Breast Obsession Explained

haganai-sena-swimsuitBoobs, headlights, breasts, jugs, chichi. Modern American culture worships the breast. But American culture isn’t alone. Anime too has a special fixation on the breast. While I’ve already addressed breast symbolism in anime, I haven’t discussed why anime obsesses over breasts. At first blush, this seems like a simple answer: guys. Guys like boobs, and anime targets men. However, this isn’t entirely correct. Modern men like breasts, but for most of human history, the breast was associated with life, particularly that of a child, instead of sexuality (Domshy, 2003). Let’s first take a look at modern ideas of why men  like breasts and then look into the traditional Japanese view.

Modern Man and Mammaries

Modern theories on breast fixation center on the idea of resource competition and biology. Scientists see the presence of large-breasted statues and cave drawings from the earliest period of human history as evidence for men’s focus on the female chest. Researchers see these artifacts across cultures (Chivers, 2012). It’s thought large breasts developed to keep men interested in women with children. They are a form of competition to attract men with resources. Basically, they work similar to how a male bird has colorful feathers. Breasts also mimic the shape of the backside which is a turn on for other apes (Miller, 2006). Larry Young, a professor of psychiatry at Emory University, suggests men like breasts because stimulating a woman’s nipples releases oxytocin, the neurochemical responsible for strengthening affection. The chemical helps bond a lady to the man (Wolchover, 2012).

soukyuu_no_fafner_dead_aggressor_exodus-01-rina-senpai-shopkeeper-fanning-cleavage-fanserviceBreasts show off fertility. Men are said to prefer young women who haven’t had children, so traits associated with youth and virginity (in this case, never being pregnant) like a slender waist, wide hips, and large, firm breasts attract men. Now you might be asking yourself, if this is the case why don’t all women have large boobs? Because breasts are costly, according to many researchers. They take vital nutrients to create, and energy to carry around; they make the female body biomechanically less efficient (again, all like the peacock’s tail). Eventually, the sexual selection benefits are outweighed by the costs. So not all women have these. Women’s breasts, on average, are already very large by comparison to most primates. (Chivers, 2012).

Sounds like science has the reason sewn up, doesn’t it? Not so fast. While these explanations are accepted, some argue against breast attraction as a natural part of male sexuality. These arguments offer convincing evidence that men learn to be attracted to breasts.

Men Aren’t Naturally Attracted to Breasts?

bleach-matsumoto_00290646The presence of large-breasted statues and paintings doesn’t necessarily point to a fixation on the chest for sexual reasons. The breast was the only means of nourishing an infant up until the 19th century. Because of this, a fixation on the breast as the symbol for life is a reasonable explanation for its prolific appearance across cultures. The idea that breasts were a way of competing for men makes little sense in light of cultural norms. Anthropologist Fran Mascia-Lees takes on this view and Young’s oxytocin argument by pointing out how not all men are attracted to breasts. She cautions: “whenever evolutionary biologists suggest a universal reason for a behavior and emotion: how about the cultural differences?” (Wolchover, 2012). For example, in some African and New Guinean cultures, women don’t cover their chest, and men show a lack of interest in the exposed bosoms.

What about breasts looking like a woman’s backside? This is a cultural projection of the West. Breasts don’t look like a lady’s backside without being squished together by bras and corsets. Both of which are Western inventions.

In Japanese culture, you also find a distinct lack of interest in the chest until the modern era. If you look at Japanese woodblock print from the Edo period, not a lot of attention is lavished on the breast. Artists rendered other body parts  in loving detail, but they largely ignored breasts. Yoshihiko Shirakawa, an expert on woodblock prints states (Kozuka, 2013):

“It appears that men of the Edo period considered breast to be a tool for child rearing. They were not a sexualized part of the body. In shunga from the early Edo Period, men and women were depicted with largely similar chests. From the point of view of the artists, breasts really didn’t seem to matter.”

Shunga are pornographic woodblock prints. Typically, shunga shows small breasts when they show up at all. When breasts appear, they appear in scenes where a woman breastfeeds an infant. Only a few artists fixated on sexual scenes involve breast stimulation. Such behavior doesn’t appear across shunga.

Back here in the West, the erotic breast appears in a brief period during the 15th and 16th centuries. The French painter Jean Fouquet paints one of the first erotic breasts in Western art. He painted Agnes, the mistress of Charles the VII with a bare breast specifically designed to suggest her eroticism. During the 16th century, prostitutes would stand on the streets bare-chested as a form of advertisement (Domshy, 2003). However, in the United States, the breast didn’t become erotic until the 1940s. Miller (2006) argues that the science of breasts is a projection of this late cultural fixation and the boom in breasts as a form of advertisement. The arguments seek to validate what is an aberration or vested interest. In 1982, the American Society of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgeons went as far as labeling small boobs as a disease. Because scientists live and grew up in a culture that fixates on breasts as a symbol for sex, they struggle to view breasts in any other way.

Anime and Breasts

kill-la-kill-ryukoAll of that brings us back to anime and its breast fetish. Anime came out of the complex interchange of American culture and Japanese culture after World War II, the same time breast fixation developed in the United States (Miller, 2006). The United States had a large influence on Japanese culture. For example, the United States is responsible for the panty fetish we see in anime. It stands to reason that the US also influenced how Japan views female chests. On the opposite side of the coin, anime targets West. In order to make more money, studios need to make stories that have the widest appeal. This explains why you often see Japanese humor–falling flat, puns, and other jokes that are strange for Westerners–combined with breast hijinks. Both the US and Japan share the same fetish, so it’s common ground for marketing stories.

Culture becomes a self-perpetuating loop. That loops can make us think something is natural. Think about Chinese foot-binding. That was a practice in ancient China that forced women to have abnormally small feet by binding them so they couldn’t grow. It caused pain and even prevented women from being able to walk. But Chinese men at the time thought it was erotic. These small, 4-inch feet, hidden in elaborately embroidered shoes, became the focus of erotic fantasies. It shows nearly anything that is hidden can gain sexual attraction. Eroticism in humans starts in our large brains. It isn’t as hardwired as some people believe. In Japanese culture, the nape of a lady’s neck excites men. For most of us here in the West, the nape of the neck is about as sexy as a wrist — which was also sexy in feudal Japan I might add. During the Roman Empire, women considered the sweat of gladiators sexy.

This article doesn’t seek to validate objectification of women. Rather, I attempt to sketch some of the reasons why we have a cultural breast fetish. Culture directs the biological drive for sex. In this article, I focused on male sexuality, but culture shapes women’s ideas of eroticism as well. While genetics creates the foundation for attraction, culture determines how that attraction forms. But in all cases, culture fixates on individual body parts. Which body part depends on culture and time period. Anime focuses on breasts because it is a product of American and Japanese culture. The breast fixation in otaku culture will disappear once culture shifts to the next erotic body part. Perhaps elbows will be the next big fetish.


Chivers, T (2012) Is it really ‘the West’ that’s breast-obsessed? Or just men? Telegraph.

Domshy, H. (2003) (Re) Imaging the Breast: An Analysis of a Cultural Obsession. Fellowship. 34 (3).

Kozuka, J. (2013) How Times Change: Japanese Men in Edo Period Not Interested in Breasts.  RocketNews24.

Miller, L. (2006) Beauty Up:  Contemporary Japanese Body Aesthetics. University of California Press.

Wolchover, N (2012) New Theory on Why Men Love Breasts. Live Science.



  • I mean i knew there was a big science to Bewbs and fan-service alike.
    Really, it really gets me when a American messes with a japanese person but then some get mad at the American (not saying I support this) but do they know that japan got influenced by America? So you would continue to think that its on Japan. OR maybe not. The history is useful tho. and i’m bound to see the ‘panty inspiration’ news as well XD

    • I cleared up your comment a little for readers.

      History helps people understand where an idea or habit originated, and this helps people empathize better or curb the behavior. Cultures constantly influence each other. Anime and kawaii are known throughout the world, for example.

  • Hi Chris, from your article I understand the American influence on anime and huge tits but isnt depicting every female character (well, almost every) bestowed with huge breasts a sort of an overkill and monotony? Have you come across anyone with a similar complaint? :p

    • I have that complaint :D. Fan service of all stripes is a problem in anime, and the commonality of large breasts is a part of that issue. You are right. It is monotonous to see so many large-chested ladies. Of course, anime uses breast size as a kind of short-hand for characterization. Some of the monotony is a result of character stereotypes.

  • Well you certainly don’t hold back now do you? What got you interested in doing this type of research. I think it’s quite amazing, I’ve done a lot of research in human sexuality and mate selection. A lot of poses questions towards todays ‘cuckolding’ fetish. But more so towards why women do what they do etc to be able to attract an ‘alpha male’ and make a ‘beta’ take care of the children. Anyway, fascinating stuff!

    • I’m glad you enjoyed the article. I’m interested in stories, and human sexuality is a story. Sometimes we hold onto stories that may not describe reality. Those stories change our perception of reality to the point where we can’t see it any longer.

      • Are you majoring in anything particular or you just freelancing it in the real world? I personally am not currently working towards anything at the moment at least in a college sense. Although, I’m quite fascinated by the stories of Japan… Just learned a bunch about the yokai the other day and how those stories came about… Really neat stuff actually, perhaps you’d like it. I learned about it on a Begin Japanology video, but they really jumped into the history books and showed quite a bit about how people were thinking about the unexplained back in those day, and how they started to use illustrations to de-mysified the control of the yokai…

      • I hold a Masters degree in Library and Information Science (My undergrad degrees are in different branches of computer science), and research was my specialty. I write books about Japanese folklore on the side. I work as an Assistant Director at a public library. College isn’t for everyone, and people can often educate themselves better than college can.

        Thanks for the link! I’m always hunting for more reference sources for my writing.

      • Right on! Yeah I was pretty sure you had something surrounding that area of study. You’ve got a lot of great articles of research here.

        I’ve been a researcher in many fields for awhile, I’ve made tons of websites since I was in my mid-teens. My latest research is now Japan (has been for 15 years now… but whose counting :P). Being my wife and I will be heading to Fukuoka next year, I always like learning as much as possible about the culture, traditions etc before I go anywhere new, or think about going somewhere new or even meeting new people from around the world.

        It will also be for when were over there and when I learn new things first hand! Seems to help me retain the information when I can regurgitate it in written form.

        All the best, keep up the great content, I really enjoy it, quite refreshing actually.


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